Tag Archives: culture

Plato, Web2, and the End of Critical Thinking


The Web will be the end of Crit­i­cal Thinking

It is fairly com­mon, par­tic­u­larly among infor­mal groups of edu­ca­tors, to hear some­one  exco­ri­ate the Web, Social Media, and Infor­ma­tion Tech­nol­ogy in gen­eral. “Our kids don’t think any­more, they just click.” The argu­ment is that Social Media and text mes­sag­ing are erod­ing, if not destroy­ing, the abil­ity of young peo­ple to write coher­ent sen­tences. In “my day” if you wanted to learn some­thing, you had to pick up a book, roll up your sleeves, and con­cen­trate. Nowa­days, you just Google it or, if you go in for heavy intel­lec­tual lift­ing, you can take five min­utes and read about it in Wikipedia.

[When I started UC Berke­ley, an under­grad­u­ate had to have a ded­i­ca­tion and com­mit­ment to learn­ing. In order to access “infor­ma­tion,” it was nec­es­sary to enter the “tem­ple of knowl­edge” (the Library), go to the mas­sive ranks of card cat­a­logues, and start thumb­ing. When three likely sources were found, cards would be filled out and handed to the keeper of the books. Elves would scurry through the stacks retriev­ing the requested tomes. As it hap­pened, usu­ally only one of the three would be of any use and the process began again. –Today, I can find more infor­ma­tion in five min­utes than I could in a week in 1967.]

What does this all have to do with Plato? Two-and-a-half mil­len­nia ago, Plato also lived in a time of chang­ing tech­nolo­gies. Plato was lit­er­ate, just as most edu­ca­tors use email, Google, and to a cer­tain extent, social media. Like other edu­ca­tors, Plato was gen­er­ally con­ser­v­a­tive though, and skep­ti­cal of change. One of these changes was the rapid spread of writ­ten lan­guage. Plato felt that writ­ing would, in essence, destroy crit­i­cal think­ing by mak­ing people’s minds lazy. Why remem­ber when all you have to do is open a scroll?

Does any of this sound famil­iar? This is what Plato said about the loss of essen­tial skills result­ing from the adop­tion of new technologies:

“[Writ­ing] will intro­duce for­get­ful­ness into the soul of those who learn it: they will not prac­tice using their mem­ory because they will put their trust in writ­ing, which is exter­nal and depends on signs that belong to oth­ers, instead of try­ing to remem­ber from the inside, com­pletely on their own. You have not dis­cov­ered a potion for remem­ber­ing, but for remind­ing; you pro­vide your stu­dents with the appear­ance of wis­dom, not with its real­ity. Your inven­tion will enable them to hear many things with­out being prop­erly taught, and they will imag­ine that they have came to know much while for the most part they will know noth­ing. And they will be dif­fi­cult to get along with, since they will merely appear to be wise instead of really being so.” (Phae­drus 275a-b)

Plato was also pre­scient about content-filtering. There are some things and ideas that should not be shared indiscriminately.

“You know, Phae­drus, writ­ing shares a strange fea­ture with paint­ing. The off­springs of paint­ing stand there as if they are alive, but if any­one asks them any­thing, they remain most solemnly silent. The same is true of writ­ten words. You’d think they were speak­ing as if they had some under­stand­ing, but if you ques­tion any­thing that has been said because you want to learn more, it con­tin­ues to sig­nify just that very same hing for­ever. When it has once been writ­ten down, every dis­course roams about every­where, reach­ing indis­crim­i­nately those with under­stand­ing no less than those who have no busi­ness with it, and it doesn’t know to whom it should speak and to whom it should not. And when it is faulted and attacked unfairly, it always needs its father’s sup­port; alone, it can nei­ther defend itself nor come to its own sup­port.” (Phae­drus 275d-e)

There are some ideas that not just any­one should be able to access.

Change is dan­ger­ous. It threat­ens to sweep away things that we have always believed. It fright­ens us because we feel that we don’t under­stand it and can’t con­trol it. Funny thing is: it’s always hap­pened and we’ve always man­aged to use chang­ing ideas and chang­ing ways of doing things to our advantage.

You could go to the Library and see if they can find a copy or…

you can read the full text of Phae­drus here. You can even down­load an audio ver­sion for your iPod/iPhone/iPad.

Sami — Erica Larsen


Stun­ning photo gallery about the Sámi by erika larsen

I see Sámi Peo­ple liv­ing in two worlds.

They are of the now. They are of the past.

When I am here a week seems like eter­nity.
This place will change me for­ever.
I am a sto­ry­teller and this becomes clearer now.

The days are nights and the nights are days.
The rein­deer move at night because the snow is harder and eas­ier
to move. There­fore so do we.

This place is Coalm­me­javri.
It means shal­low water between two lakes.

Time does not exist here, not really any­way.
Yes­ter­day I stood in a vac­uum of fog, Murku, win­ter fog.
It was a place where every­thing could exist but noth­ing does.

We stay in a lavvo and I what I think most queer
is that even though the tun­dra seems absent of all life we get vis­i­tors every­day.
I can’t say for sure where they mate­ri­al­ize from since I have yet to see another lavvo
but I sup­pose in the vast­ness of the tun­dra it would be fool­ish of me to think we are alone.

This life is hard, the work with the reindeer.

The weather is ever chang­ing and unin­ter­ested in the com­fort of those who inhabit the land­scape.
The weather takes all the energy out a man.
He wears it on his face.

But the peo­ple are proud of their work.
They are proud to be Sámi.
Every ounce of their being is Sámi.

SAMI » Erika Larsen Pho­tog­ra­phy.


a Sámi fam­ily from ca 1900


More about the Sámi

another Sámi archae­ol­ogy site

The Cricket World Cup — This Weekend

While not caus­ing much stir in the US, this really is kind of a big deal…

The 2011 World Cup of cricket begins this week­end, and everyone’s got some­thing to prove. At the top of the list is India’s Sachin Ten­dulkar. He is the world’s top bats­man, the only man ever to score 200 runs in a one-day match, and holds records for the most runs and “cen­turies,” or 100 runs, in both the five-day Test for­mat and one-day inter­na­tional cricket. Still, he has never lifted his sport’s top tro­phy and at 37, he may not have another chance.

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2052219,00.html#ixzz1EQxCmPWB

ICC Cricket World cup 2011 live stream­ing links

Offi­cial EPSNSTAR online stream­ing: You can watch all the crick­et­ing action of the ICC world cup 2011 online at ESPNSTAR.com on match days. They also pro­vide live scores, match replays and sum­maries. The ser­vice seems to be free at this point.

WILLOW.TV:If  you are liv­ing in US, the best way to watch World cup 2011 Cricket live stream­ing  is by using the ser­vice pro­vided by Willow.TV. Though it is a pre­mium ser­vice they offer unmatched cricket stream­ing in HD qual­ity, and they even have mobile appli­ca­tions that let you watch live matches in almost all smart­phone plat­forms. Wil­low. TV main­tains agree­ments with ICC and other crick­et­ing agen­cies for online stream­ing of World cup cricket 2011. There­fore, the ser­vice is legal in all sup­ported coun­tries. You can pur­chase a suit­able cricket pack­age from their web­site, here.

World cup 2011 live stream­ing in mobile: Voda­fone in India has come to an agree­ment with ESPN, and that will allow them to stream world cup 2011  live on mobile phones. This ser­vice will be avail­able for all Voda­fone cus­tomers with a 2G or 3G smart­phone and a valid GPRS plan. Con­tact the cus­tomer care for more details

Cricket World Cup 101: Matches to Watch — TIME.

Cricket World Cup 2011: Bangladesh v India live

India (370−4) beat Bangladesh (283−9) by 87 runs. Read over-by-over com­men­tary from the open­ing game of the 2011 Cricket World Cup as Bangladesh host India.

GOOD Design: Do You Double Space After Periods?

The extra space after a period is an arti­fact of the days of the mechan­i­cal typewriter.

This is one of those issues about which I also have a very strong opin­ion. One of the things that is not men­tioned by the author of this piece is how all of those extra spaces in a long doc­u­ment play havoc with lay­out when you try to re-purpose the doc­u­ment for the web or other elec­tronic media.

Design­ers tend to be overly opin­ion­ated about lots of things that the rest of the world doesnt care much about. Bad logos. Poor color choices. And don’t get them started on the pros and cons mostly cons of Comic Sans. But theres one argu­ment where design­ers, namely type design­ers, do know best. And thats the argu­ment against plac­ing a dou­ble space after a period.

The deal is this: Long, long ago some of us learned to type on type­writ­ers, which, for the most part, used mono­space fonts, or let­ters that each took up the exact same width. We were instructed to insert an extra space to give that period some room before the next cap­i­tal letter.

With the evo­lu­tion of type pro­grams on com­put­ers, we now use pro­por­tional fonts, where the com­puter knows that an “i” takes up less space than an “m” and adjusts the space accord­ingly. The same thing goes for the period at the end of this sen­tence. Trust me. Your com­puter knows best.

read the whole piece — it’s pretty good:

via GOOD Design Daily: Do You Dou­ble Space After Peri­ods? — Design — GOOD.

Cup’s draft route skirts shoreline

Proposed America

Pro­posed course for San Fran­cisco Bay America’s Cup Races

America’s Cup for San Francisco

Orga­niz­ers of the America’s Cup sail­ing race said that if the race were held in San Fran­cisco, the bay would act as a nat­ural arena, giv­ing mil­lions of peo­ple the chance to see the multimillion-dollar yachts race past Alca­traz and the Transamer­ica Pyramid.

And the first-draft ver­sion of the race route shows just how cen­tral the race will be.

The 45-minute course will send the swift 72-foot cata­ma­rans from Crissy Field along the Embar­cadero before they loop around and pass Trea­sure and Angel islands. The Golden Gate Bridge, Marin County, San Fran­cisco and the East Bay hills will be a con­stant back­drop to the race, tele­vised through­out the world.

Orga­niz­ers also hope that hav­ing the entire race near shore (in the past, all races have been held miles from the shore) will attract thou­sands more to the sport of sailing.

Because, let’s face it, watch­ing sail­ing on TV is pre­ten­tious. Watch­ing it from the shore of Angel Island — or from your high-rise office in down­town San Fran­cisco — is awesome.

Peo­ple can actu­ally watch it from so many places around the bay,” said Stephanie Mar­tin, spokes­woman for the race. “You know live sports — you want to watch it live.”

Race orga­niz­ers are also con­sid­er­ing send­ing the ships out for a lap out­side of the Golden Gate before they return to the bay.

The course will be final­ized by Jan. 31, Mar­tin said.

via Cup’s draft route skirts shore­line.

His­tory of the America’s Cup

The tro­phy was orig­i­nally awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight which was won by the schooner Amer­ica. The syn­di­cate which owned the Amer­ica renamed the cup the America’s Cup and pre­sented the cup to the New York Yacht Club under the terms of the Deed of Gift which made the cup avail­able for per­pet­ual inter­na­tional competition.

The old­est tro­phy in inter­na­tional sport, the America’s Cup has become an obses­sion for some of the most famous, pow­er­ful, and exceed­ingly eccen­tric char­ac­ters in the world. The America’s Cup tran­scends mere sport; rather, it is a story of adven­ture, ambi­tion, tech­nol­ogy, inno­va­tion, cre­ativ­ity, and competition.

It is a story that begins a long time ago. To put the his­tory of the America’s Cup in con­text, con­sider that when the first Games of the mod­ern Olympics were held in Athens in 1896, it had already been 45 years since the yacht Amer­ica had bested the British fleet in 1851.

That first race around the Isle of Wight, on the Solent off the south coast of Eng­land, was for the Royal Yacht Squadron’s 100 Guinea Cup. The win­ning boat, Amer­ica, was built by a syn­di­cate from the New York Yacht Club, led by com­modore John Cox Stevens. Amer­ica was designed to be sailed across the Atlantic, to par­tic­i­pate in the Uni­ver­sal Exhi­bi­tion, and then race against the best of the British fleet, for ‘gentlemen’s wagers’.

But Stevens and his col­leagues tipped their hand too early, blast­ing up the Solent on the final deliv­ery from across the Eng­lish Chan­nel, and dis­suad­ing any locals from tak­ing bets against the rad­i­cal look­ing cut­ter. Even­tu­ally, after sig­nif­i­cant pres­sure from the press and the gen­eral pub­lic, Amer­ica was allowed to sail in the Royal Yacht Squadron’s 100 Guinea Cup, win­ning the race, and claim­ing the tro­phy to take home.

In 1857, Stevens and his syn­di­cate donated the tro­phy through a Deed of Gift to the New York Yacht Club, declar­ing the Cup should be held in trust as a “per­pet­ual Chal­lenge Cup for friendly com­pe­ti­tion between for­eign countries.”

Thus was born the America’s Cup, named after the boat, rather than the country.

The America’s Cup, still true to the Deed of Gift, is a challenge-based tro­phy. The Yacht Club win­ning the America’s Cup becomes the Defender, and must race against eli­gi­ble chal­leng­ing yacht clubs to defend the trophy.

In the early years, the defend­ing New York Yacht Club could boast sev­eral advan­tages that it wielded to keep the Cup safe in its tro­phy room. Chal­leng­ing boats had to be built heav­ily enough to sail to New York (often across the Atlantic) but then were com­pet­ing in the light con­di­tions of the US East Coast in summer.

This, among other advan­tages, allowed the New York Yacht Club to keep the America’s Cup for 132-years, often described as the longest win­ning streak in sport.

The streak lasted through two World Wars, even­tu­ally com­ing to an end only in 1983, in the 12-Metre class. For most of the his­tory of the America’s Cup, the Defender would accept just one chal­lenge, but in 1970, with sev­eral clubs from dif­fer­ent coun­tries inter­ested in the Cup, the New York Yacht Club accepted mul­ti­ple chal­lenges, the chal­lenger can­di­dates first rac­ing each other to deter­mine who would sail against the Defender in the America’s Cup Match.

My sis­ter and I were both think­ing that it’s a shame “Grandpa Jim” won’t be there to watch the races. (even though he was not par­tic­u­larly fond of catamarans)

AIA — Tutankhamun: The Life and Death of a God King

Dr. Lanney Bell, Brown University

Dr. Lan­ney Bell, Dis­tin­guished Egyp­tol­o­gist from Brown University

Archae­o­log­i­cal Insti­tute of Amer­ica,
Hawaii Chap­ter presents:

Lanny Bell, Brown Uni­ver­sity
Jan­u­ary 13th, 2011 Doris Duke The­atre 7:30 PM  free
Sponosored by Archae­o­log­i­cal Insti­tute of Amer­ica,  Uni­ver­sity of Hawaii  and Hon­olulu Acad­emy of Arts

Dr. Lan­ney Bell, dis­tin­guished Egyp­tol­o­gist  Brown Uni­ver­sity will deliver an illus­trated lecture:

The Son of the Sun, Tutankhamun (1334−1325 BCE) was a god in his own time; but he was also a mor­tal on earth.  While the con­tents of his tomb tell us a great deal about his divine sta­tus, what do they tell us about his life and death his human side?  What did he really look like?  Who were his par­ents?  How did he die, and how old was he?  Who con­trolled him while he was on the throne?  Did he have any chil­dren?  What role did his widow Ankhe­se­na­mun attempt to play in the selec­tion of the next king?  What was his rela­tion­ship with his suc­ces­sor, the aged Aye.  Did Aye switch tombs with him?  Why was his tomb equip­ment so richly pro­vided, includ­ing per­sonal gifts donated by impor­tant offi­cials and courtiers; and where did it all come from?  The new trav­el­ing Tutankhamun exhi­bi­tions present an occa­sion to reex­am­ine some of these issues, even though many of them are not yet com­pletely resolved.

for infor­ma­tion, contact:

Robert J. Littman, M.Litt., Ph.D.
Pro­fes­sor of Clas­sics

LLEA 1890 East West Road
Uni­ver­sity of Hawaii
Hon­olulu, HI 96822
tel (808) 956‑4173

Predictions For 2011 — From 1931 : Planet Money : NPR

but for the details, this is remarkably like Skype...

I always enjoy Future His­tory. One of the com­mon threads of pre­dic­tion is that it’s usu­ally wrong. I’m not sure but I have a sense that part of the prob­lem may be the inabil­ity to accu­rately describe ini­tial con­di­tions when pro­ject­ing a future.

Back in 1931, the New York Times asked a bunch of lumi­nar­ies to pre­dict what the world would be like in 2011. Here are a few of the highlights.

Labor dis­place­ment will pro­ceed even to auto­matic fac­to­ries. The magic of remote con­trol will be com­mon­place. Humanity’s most ver­sa­tile ser­vant will be the elec­tron tube.… the het­ero­gene­ity of mate­r­ial cul­ture will mean spe­cial­ists and lan­guages that only spe­cial­ists can understand. …”

One can safely proph­esy that dur­ing the next eighty years this civ­i­liza­tion will cor­rect this defi­ciency by cre­at­ing an indus­trial democ­racy which will guar­an­tee to the worker an equi­table share in the wealth pro­duced by his work.”

Although we may desire to believe only what we can see, our emo­tions will pre­dom­i­nate when crises beyond human under­stand­ing con­front us, and some form of reli­gion will con­tinue to sus­tain peo­ple in time of stress.”

via Pre­dic­tions For 2011 — From 1931 : Planet Money : NPR.

from cellodad Tumblr

(click image to go directly to the NEH page)

“Each year the NEH’s Divi­sion of Edu­ca­tion Pro­grams offers teach­ers oppor­tu­ni­ties to study a vari­ety of human­i­ties top­ics in NEH Sum­mer Sem­i­nars and Institutes.”

Teach­ers of His­tory, Eng­lish, and the Human­i­ties. The NEH Sum­mer Insti­tutes and Sem­i­nars are a fan­tas­tic oppor­tu­nity to work with some of the best schol­ars in their respec­tive fields and with some of the finest teach­ers in the nation. What’s more, they pay you to do it. Hawaii teach­ers are encour­aged to apply.

To find out more about this oppor­tu­nity, visit the NEH Sum­mer Sem­i­nars and Insti­tutes page

via cel­lodad.

Aaron Copland — born on this day in 1900

For me, the music of Aaron Cop­land is the music of Amer­ica. His Amer­ica is a land of hope, of val­ues, of lim­it­less vis­tas. I first became acquainted with his music in high school choir singing the “Three Amer­i­can Songs”. This was the begin­ning of a life-long appreciation.

(unfor­tu­nately, if you are read­ing this in the HIDOE domain k12.hi.us, all you are see­ing between the text is empty space. HIDOE feels that stu­dents and staff need to be pro­tected from “harm­ful” con­tent like Music.)

Aaron Cop­land biography

from PBS  Amer­i­can Masters

Cop­land was born in Brook­lyn, New York, on Novem­ber 14, 1900. The child of Jew­ish immi­grants from Lithua­nia, he first learned to play the piano from his older sis­ter. At the age of six­teen he went to Man­hat­tan to study with Rubin Gold­mark, a respected pri­vate music instruc­tor who taught Cop­land the fun­da­men­tals of coun­ter­point and com­po­si­tion. Dur­ing these early years he immersed him­self in con­tem­po­rary clas­si­cal music by attend­ing per­for­mances at the New York Sym­phony and Brook­lyn Acad­emy of Music. He found, how­ever, that like many other young musi­cians, he was attracted to the clas­si­cal his­tory and musi­cians of Europe. So, at the age of twenty, he left New York for the Sum­mer School of Music for Amer­i­can Stu­dents at Foun­tainebleau, France.

In France, Cop­land found a musi­cal com­mu­nity unlike any he had known. It was at this time that he sold his first com­po­si­tion to Durand and Sons, the most respected music pub­lisher in France. While in Europe Copeland met many of the impor­tant artists of the time, includ­ing the famous com­poser Serge Kous­se­vit­sky. Kous­se­vit­sky requested that Cop­land write a piece for the Boston Sym­phony Orches­tra. The piece, “Sym­phony for Organ and Orches­tra” (1925) was Copland’s entry into the life of pro­fes­sional Amer­i­can music. He fol­lowed this with “Music for the The­ater” (1925) and “Piano Con­certo” (1926), both of which relied heav­ily on the jazz idioms of the time. For Cop­land, jazz was the first gen­uinely Amer­i­can major musi­cal move­ment. From jazz he hoped to draw the inspi­ra­tion for a new type of sym­phonic music, one that could dis­tin­guish itself from the music of Europe.

In the late 1920s Copland’s atten­tion turned to pop­u­lar music of other coun­tries. He had moved away from his inter­est in jazz and began to con­cern him­self with expand­ing the audi­ence for Amer­i­can clas­si­cal music. He believed that clas­si­cal music could even­tu­ally be as pop­u­lar as jazz in Amer­ica or folk music in Mex­ico. He worked toward this goal with both his music and a firm com­mit­ment to orga­niz­ing and pro­duc­ing. He was an active mem­ber of many orga­ni­za­tions, includ­ing both the Amer­i­can Com­posers’ Alliance and the League of Com­posers. Along with his friend Roger Ses­sions, he began the Copland-Sessions con­certs, ded­i­cated to pre­sent­ing the works of young com­posers. It was around this same time that his plans for an Amer­i­can music fes­ti­val (sim­i­lar to ones in Europe) mate­ri­al­ized as the Yaddo Fes­ti­val of Amer­i­can Music (1932). By the mid-’30s Cop­land had become not only one of the most pop­u­lar com­posers in the coun­try, but a leader of the com­mu­nity of Amer­i­can clas­si­cal musicians.

It was in 1935 with “El Salón Méx­ico” that Cop­land began his most pro­duc­tive and pop­u­lar years. The piece pre­sented a new sound that had its roots in Mex­i­can folk music. Cop­land believed that through this music, he could find his way to a more pop­u­lar sym­phonic music. In his search for the widest audi­ence, Cop­land began com­pos­ing for the movies and bal­let. Among his most pop­u­lar com­po­si­tions for film are those for “Of Mice and Men” (1939), “Our Town ” (1940), and “The Heiress” (1949), which won him an Acad­emy Award for best score. He com­posed scores for a num­ber of bal­lets, includ­ing two of the most pop­u­lar of the time: “Agnes DeMille’s Rodeo” (1942) and Martha Gra­ham’s “Appalachian Spring” (1944), for which he won the Pulitzer Prize. Both bal­lets pre­sented views of Amer­i­can coun­try life that cor­re­sponded to the folk tra­di­tions Cop­land was inter­ested in. Prob­a­bly the most impor­tant and suc­cess­ful com­po­si­tion from this time was his patri­otic “A Lin­coln Por­trait” (1942). The piece for voice and orches­tra presents quotes from Lincoln’s writ­ings nar­rated over Copland’s musi­cal composition.

Through­out the ’50s, Cop­land slowed his work as a com­poser, and began to try his hand at con­duct­ing. He began to tour with his own work as well as the works of other great Amer­i­can musi­cians. Con­duct­ing was a syn­the­sis of the work he had done as a com­poser and as an orga­nizer. Over the next twenty years he trav­eled through­out the world, con­duct­ing live per­for­mances and cre­at­ing an impor­tant col­lec­tion of recorded work. By the early ’70s, Cop­land had, with few excep­tions, com­pletely stopped writ­ing orig­i­nal music. Most of his time was spent con­duct­ing and rework­ing older com­po­si­tions. In 1983 Cop­land con­ducted his last sym­phony. His gen­er­ous work as a teacher at Tan­gle­wood, Har­vard, and the New School for Social Research gained him a fol­low­ing of devoted musi­cians. As a scholar, he wrote more than sixty arti­cles and essays on music, as well as five books. He trav­eled the world in an attempt to ele­vate the sta­tus of Amer­i­can music abroad, and to increase its pop­u­lar­ity at home. Through these var­i­ous com­mit­ments to music and to his coun­try, Aaron Cop­land became one of the most impor­tant fig­ures in twentieth-century Amer­i­can music. On Decem­ber 2, 1990, Aaron Cop­land died in North Tar­ry­town, New York.

Archaeology Lecture — The Exodus

Dr. James K. Hoffmeier has authored and edited a number of books, including “Sacred” in the Vocabulary of Ancient Egypt (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis; Freiburg University Press, 1985), Israel in Egypt: Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1997 & 1999)


Novem­ber 10, 7:30pm — 8:30pm
Manoa Cam­pus, Cam­pus Cen­ter Ballroom

James K. Hoffmeier
Trin­ity Inter­na­tional University

This lec­ture will include a report on Hoffmeier’s exca­va­tions at Tell el-Borg and geo­log­i­cal work in Sinai. Fur­ther, satel­lite imagery will also be used to recon­struct the ancient envi­ron­ment on Egypt’s east­ern fron­tier, the very area where the Bible reports the exo­dus to have occurred.

James K. Hoffmeier, Pro­fes­sor of Near East­ern Archae­ol­ogy at Trin­ity Inter­na­tional Uni­ver­sity, Divin­ity School (Deer­field, IL), was born in Egypt where he lived until age 16. Grow­ing up in the Mid­dle East laid an impor­tant foun­da­tion for his future as an archae­ol­o­gist. He has been engaged in field­work and research in Egypt on a reg­u­lar basis since 1975.

Dr. Hoffmeier has authored and edited a num­ber of books, includ­ing “Sacred” in the Vocab­u­lary of Ancient Egypt (Orbis Bib­li­cus et Ori­en­talis; Freiburg Uni­ver­sity Press, 1985), Israel in Egypt: Evi­dence for the Authen­tic­ity of the Exo­dus Tra­di­tion (Oxford Uni­ver­sity Press, 1997 & 1999),

via UH Manoa Cam­pus Events Cal­en­dar.